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Ethan Gonzalez
Ethan Gonzalez

Clinical Pathology !NEW!

In order to investigate the clinical pathology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the autopsies of three patients who died from SARS in Nan Fang Hospital Guangdong, China were studied retrospectively. Routine haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to study all of the tissues from the three cases. The lung tissue specimens were studied further with Macchiavello staining, viral inclusion body staining, reticulin staining, PAS staining, immunohistochemistry, ultrathin sectioning and staining, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The first symptom was hyperpyrexia in all three cases, followed by progressive dyspnoea and lung field shadowing. The pulmonary lesions included bilateral extensive consolidation, localized haemorrhage and necrosis, desquamative pulmonary alveolitis and bronchitis, proliferation and desquamation of alveolar epithelial cells, exudation of protein and monocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells in alveoli, hyaline membrane formation, and viral inclusion bodies in alveolar epithelial cells. There was also massive necrosis of splenic lymphoid tissue and localized necrosis in lymph nodes. Systemic vasculitis included oedema, localized fibrinoid necrosis, and infiltration of monocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells into vessel walls in the heart, lung, liver, kidney, adrenal gland, and the stroma of striated muscles. Thrombosis was present in small veins. Systemic toxic changes included degeneration and necrosis of the parenchyma cells in the lung, liver, kidney, heart, and adrenal gland. Electron microscopy demonstrated clusters of viral particles, consistent with coronavirus, in lung tissue. SARS is a systemic disease that injures many organs. The lungs, immune organs, and systemic small vessels are the main targets of virus attack, so that extensive consolidation of the lung, diffuse alveolar damage with hyaline membrane formation, respiratory distress, and decreased immune function are the main causes of death.

Clinical Pathology


Comparative Clinical Pathology provides a source for the publication of reviews, research reports, technical notes and case histories covering all aspects of haematology and clinical chemistry in mammalian species. Comparative aspects of our work refers to differences in amount, number, degree, or quality from normal or expected findings, and often is related to comparison between differing species including human.

We are striving to add primary literature references to all sections of this website. This will be done as we modify and update pages and will be done with all new pages. When this site was created, it was for the sole purpose of providing students in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University to supplement the new (at the time, in 1999) problem-based curriculum. At that time, there were few textbooks available on veterinary clinical pathology (now there are a plethora). So the original content was based on information in these available textbooks:

Nebraska Medicine Clinical Laboratories provide an extensive menu of laboratory testing to support the clinical mission at our health center. As shown in the left handed links of this page, the laboratories are divided into sections according to discipline. Each section has a manager and a medical director with expertise in that particular discipline. Users are encouraged to contact the manager and medical director of the individual sections with questions concerning test utilization, ordering information or results interpretation. Scott Koepsell, MD, PhD, is the medical director of the laboratories and Jodi Garrett, MT (ASCP) SM is the administrative director. For a full catalog of clinical lab tests that we provide, please visit this page. Requests for general information or comments concerning our laboratory services should be directed to Dr. Koepsell.

The clinical pathology laboratory offers many routines and several specialty assays for patients in the teaching hospitals and from practitioners in private practice. Routine assays are performed daily, Monday through Friday; additionally, emergency samples are processed on weekends and holidays. Samples from private practitioners are welcome and can be mailed to the Department of Pathobiology via US Postal Service, UPS, FedEx or other package delivery couriers.

We are staffed by four clinical pathologists, three clinical pathology residents, a laboratory manager, a senior medical technologist, three medical technologists/medical laboratory technicians, two submission clerks and six after hour veterinary students.

We are an AAHA accredited laboratory. All tests and evaluations are performed in accordance with established policies and procedures in order to provide quality veterinary diagnostic services. We understand the importance of accurate and timely results and strive to provide superior services and to exceed expectations. In most cases, same day consultation with veterinary clinical pathologists is available.

The Clinical Pathology Laboratories provide diagnostic service and professional laboratory expertise to all Veterinary Hospitals within the Ohio State University Veterinary Medical System, referring veterinarians, and the general public via their referring veterinarian. In addition to diagnostic services and specimen analysis, the clinical laboratories provide valuable case material for teaching veterinary medical students and preparing residents for specialty board certification in veterinary pathology, clinical pathology, internal medicine, and surgery. Our services include the:

Our board-certified pathologists, residents, and certified medical technologists perform high-quality laboratory testing in clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, urinalysis, and diagnostic cytology to provide timely and accurate diagnostic service to hospital clinicians, researchers, and referring veterinarians.

Please visit the For Veterinarians page for information on MDR1 genetic testing through the Pharmacology Lab or histopathology, serology and bacteriology testing through the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory.

The mission of the Anatomic and Clinical Pathology Residency at Mayo Clinic's campus in Rochester, Minnesota, is to provide outstanding education and practical experience in every aspect of laboratory medicine and pathology, in order to prepare graduates to excel in any practice setting.

As a resident at Mayo Clinic, you'll have access to robust clinical, educational, and research resources. You'll find support both inside and outside of the campus to promote physical and mental wellness and ensure your work/life balance.

Welcome to the Mayo Clinic Anatomic and Clinical Pathology Residency. We offer a dynamic training program that will prepare you for a very successful career in pathology, regardless of your post-training professional career plans.

National guidelines provide for HPV testing in patients with certain abnormal Pap smears and in other select clinical indications. The presence of high risk HPV leads to more frequent examination or more aggressive investigation (e.g., colposcopy and biopsy). There is no medical indication for low risk HPV testing (HPV types that cause genital warts or very minor cell changes on the cervix) because the infection is not associated with disease progression and there is no treatment or therapy change indicated when low risk HPV is identified.

Most preoperative tests (typically a complete blood count, Prothrombin Time and Partial Prothomboplastin Time, basic metabolic panel (BMP) and urinalysis) performed on elective surgical patients are normal. Findings influence management in under 3% of patients tested. In almost all cases, no adverse outcomes are observed when clinically stable patients undergo elective surgery, irrespective of whether an abnormal test is identified. Preoperative testing is appropriate in symptomatic patients and those with risks factors for which diagnostic testing can provide clarification of patient surgical risk.

Measurements of the level of vitamin K in the blood are rarely used to determine if a deficiency exists. Vitamin K deficiency is very rare, but when it does occur, a prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and elevated INR will result. A diagnosis is typically made by observing the PT correction following administration of vitamin K, plus the presence of clinical risk factors for vitamin K deficiency.

With the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, there may be increasing numbers of older men with lower testosterone levels that do not fully meet diagnostic or symptomatic criteria for hypogonadism. Current clinical guidelines recommend making a diagnosis of androgen deficiency only in men with consistent symptoms and signs coupled with unequivocally low serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone should only be ordered on patients exhibiting signs and symptoms of androgen deficiency.

The TSH test can detect subclinical thyroid disease in patients without symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. A TSH value within the reference interval excludes the majority of cases of primary overt thyroid disease. If the TSH is abnormal, confirm the diagnosis with free thyroxine (T4).

Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a minimally invasive staging procedure developed to identify patients with subclinical nodal metastases at higher risk of occurrence, who could be candidates for complete lymph node dissection or adjuvant systemic therapy. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Melanoma Panel does not recommend SLNB for patients with in situ melanoma (stage 0). In general, the panel does not recommend SLNB for Stage 1A or 1B lesions that are very thin (0.75mm or less). In the rare event that a conventional high-risk feature is present, the decision about SLNB should be left to the patient and the treating physician.

Serologic evaluation of patients to determine the presence/absence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is no longer considered clinically useful. Alternative noninvasive testing methods (e.g., the urea breath test and stool antigen test) exist for detecting the presence of the bacteria and have demonstrated higher clinical utility, sensitivity, and specificity. Additionally, both the American College of Gastroenterology and the American Gastroenterology Association recommend either the breath or stool antigen tests as the preferred testing modalities for active H. pylori infection. Finally, several laboratories have dropped the serological test from their menus, and many insurance providers are no longer reimbursing patients for serologic testing. 041b061a72


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